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Indigenous first-class and Test cricketers, 1860s to 1960s

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The story of Aboriginal Test cricketers is one of the most controversial in Australian sport. The first Australian Test team of cricketers, selected for a Tour of England in 1868 were all Aboriginal players – years before the first white Australian cricket team went abroad.

The First Australian Cricket Team to Tour England 1868, image by Dave Thomas, 2001

Following the tour, Johnny Mullagh (Unaarrimin) and Twopenny (Murrumgunarriman), both continued to play Test cricket. Later, Australia's fastest and best bowlers ever: Jack Marsh, Albert Henry and Eddie Gilbert, were all Test qualifiers but were not selected to tour, specifically because of their race.

Cricket was popular at several Aboriginal mission stations across the colonies in the 1870s, including: Coranderrk and Edenhope in Victoria, Deebing Creek in Queensland and Poonindie in South Australia (SA). In Western Australia (WA), an Aboriginal team from New Norcia – where the game was introduced by Bishop Salvado and encouraged by the missionaries as a 'civilizing' process – became a leading team in the West. However, it was the Aboriginal cricket players from western Victoria who were the nucleus of the 13 member tour of England in 1868.

Nannultera, a young Poonindie cricketer, by JM Crossland, 1854. Courtesy of National Gallery of Australia

By the 1900s, restrictive policies which 'absorbed' their wages made it difficult for Indigenous cricket players to travel to matches, let alone be able to afford their gear. The reserve system overshadowed the lives of the cricketers. The Queensland Cricket Association arranged that the Protector physically remove first-class players, Albert Henry and Eddie Gilbert, back to their reserves when they were not playing cricket. Even when Indigenous players were given exemptions to travel to play sport, the racism of the 'Protection' era resulted in many bad umpiring decisions which were widely publicised in the mainstream press and sporting journals.

However, gifted, talented and keen first-class Indigenous cricketers did emerge in the 1900s and 1920s; men who clean bowled Test batsmen – such as Eddie Gilbert who bowled Bradman for a duck in 1931. In the 1934-35 season, two women cricketers from Stradbroke Island played for Queensland against the first touring English team, and Faith Thomas represented Australian in 1958. Finally in 1988, Ian King from Stradbroke Island led a new Indigenous Eleven to tour England in memory of the first Test.

The first tour of England in 1868 – 'the Black Lords'

Aboriginal cricket team versus Melbourne Cricket Club XI, Boxing Day, 1866, LtoR  Mr Hayman, Captain Sugar, Jellico, Cuzens, Needy, Mullagh, Bullocky, Tarpot, Sundown, Tom Wills (umpire), Officer and Peter seated. Courtesy of Aussie Sports and Colin Tatz.

A series of matches between Aboriginal teams and others were first organised by William Hayman, from Lake Wallace on Boxing Day 1866, the first match to establish the Boxing Day tradition. First-class cricketer Tom Wills was captain and coach of the team which attracted between 8000 and 10000 spectators.

A businessman, William Broughton-Gurnett contracted the team to play matches in Victoria, Sydney and Brisbane followed by a tour to England. In 1867, the team toured NSW in fund-raising matches and devastated the Army and Navy team in Sydney before 5,000 spectators, with eight wickets for 23.

Unfortunately the funds were embezzled, leaving the team destitute in Sydney with many in poor health. Some of the members became sick and others died. Soon after a team was resurrected by Charles Lawrence, a professional cricketer who remained in Australia after playing with the first English team to tour in 1861. Lawrence arranged a series of benefit matches to enable the players to return home to Victoria. Lawrence then arranged for the tour of England. 

Johnny Cuzens (Y) Zellanach, fast bowler on the tour, 1868. Courtesy of MCC

The touring team of 13, with Charles Lawrence as captain, arrived in England on 13 May 1868. Between 7,000 and 9,000 people turned up to watch them play in Surrey on 25 May. Of Mullagh's batting for 73 in 80 minutes against Surrey, The Sporting Gazette wrote, 'a clever performance, and worthy of any batsman, no matter what his country or colour'. Johny Cuzens Zellanach was regarded as a fearsome fast bowler.

Most matches featured two days of cricket followed by a third day of 'sports' running events and demonstration of Aboriginal weaponry and traditional skills such as boomerang throwing. This included Dick-a-Dick Jungunjinanuke dodging spears and cricket balls using a parrying shield and leangle (an Aboriginal war club). He was hit just once on the entire tour. This was considered a draw-card by spectators.

The tour match record was seen as impressive with 19 draws, 14 losses and 14 wins as part of a 47 match itinerary.

No eleven has in one season ever played so many matches ... so successfully – never playing fewer than two matches in each week, and frequently three, bearing an amount of fatigue that now seems incredible ...
Sporting Life, 28 October 1868 in Colin Tatz, Aborigines in Sport, p. 26

First Australian Test team to tour England, 1868, Left to right, King Cole, Jim Jallachmurrimin, Tarboe [or Tiger] (standing),Peter, T W Wills - Capt (standing), Red Cap, Harry Rose [?Mosquito], Mullagh (standing), Bullocky, Cuzens, Dick-a-Dick (standing). Absent are: Sundown Ballrinjarrimin, Twopenny and Charley Dumas, courtesy of MCC

The team was on the field for 99 out of a possible 126 days. Fatigue and illness was a serious problem. King Cole (Brippokei) died of tuberculosis mid-tour, and illness forced Sundown (Ballrinjarrimin) and Jim Crow (Jallachmurrimin) to be sent home in August. The remaining eleven were much fatigued.

The tour was a financial success, officially netting a total profit of £2,176, but there is no evidence that any Aboriginal player received payment. On their return the players dispersed, and many died prematurely and in obscurity. Any possibility of subsequent tours ended with the implementation of the Victorian Aboriginal Protection Act 1869, which restricted Aborigines' freedom of association and movement – so no overseas travel.

Johnny Mullagh – 'The Black W.G.' of the team

Johnny Mullagh Unaarrimin, batsman. Courtesy of West Wimmera Shire

Johnny Mullagh (Unaarrimin) achieved fame as 'The Black W.G.' of the team. He not only batted 'elegantly', but also sometimes kept wicket and had a reasonable bowling action, taking '245 wickets at ten runs apiece'. Mullagh scored the most runs with 1,698 as well as its highest individual score of 94. W.G. Grace, the father of English cricket, stated that the team showed 'conspicuous skill at the game'.

Mullagh later played for the Melbourne Cricket Club and represented Victoria against touring English teams in 1870 and 1879 and remained a member of the Harrow Cricket Club. The Johnny Mullagh Cricket Centre has been developed by the Harrow community as a means of celebrating the story of the 1868–69 tour.

New Norcia cricket team 1879 - 1906

The New Norcians was a team of mainly Indigenous Australian cricketers, removed as families and children to New Norcia Mission, who played in Western Australia between about 1879 and 1906. When the team appeared on the struggling local cricket scene, it dominated the Perth and Fremantle metropolitan clubs. The local press ironically recognised the racial status and superior cricket ability of the Aborigines by observing: 'the poor despised blacks gained a victory by eight runs'. In the second innings of a match against Fremantle in 1881, Fremantle needed just 49 runs to win. However soon, the Aboriginal team had removed Fremantle for 17 runs.

New Norcia and Victoria Plains cricket team, c1905, Mon'nop is standing second from left was part of the original New Norcia cricket team of 1879.

The New Norcians often entertained the crowds before and after matches with athletic demonstrations such as throwing and running.

Johnny Blurton, Johnny Maher, Jackimarra, Walley and Yappo – star players

The star player for the New Norcians was all-rounder Johnny Blurton. Not usually the regular wicket-keeper, on one occasion he took the gloves and within a few minutes had effected a spectacular stumping. In 1881 The West Australian newspaper described him as 'the best all round cricketer' in that team, 'and perhaps in the colony'. Other noted players were Johnny Maher, an opening bowler and prolific wicket taker and Jackimarra, a left-handed bowler. As well as Blurton, noted batsmen within the team included Walley, Jackimarra and Yappo.

Jack Marsh, Albert Henry and Eddie Gilbert – extreme fast pace bowlers

Crowd and match at Sydney Cricket Ground from hill, c1900-02, attributed to William Livermore. SLNSW PXE 711- 293 a116293h

In 1900, Jack Marsh made his debut first-class match in New South Wales (NSW), and then in 1901, Albert Henry stepped up before Eddie Gilbert began playing for Queensland in the 1920s and 1930s. All of these Indigenous men were first-class extreme fast pace bowlers. First-class meant they represented their states, NSW and Queensland, in games which were at least three days long and had eleven a side. Yet their successes as fast bowlers created some of the difficult sporting and life situations in which they found themselves.

As fast bowlers, bowling balls at the speed of a bullet, Marsh, Henry and Gilbert upset the order of the day. The historical records show that all three bowlers were 'no-balled' many times for 'throwing' by particular umpires. It was suggested by the commentators of the day that this calling of 'no-ball' by the umpires was because they were Aborigines who consistently clean bowled Test batsmen.

Having Aboriginal fast bowlers dismiss famous Test batsmen for either a duck, meaning no score, or scores as low as one, offended some umpires. It just 'wasn't cricket'. Subsequently and controversially, all of them were denied places in Australia's Test teams, with cricketers and commentators stating that it was because 'of their colour'.

Jack Marsh – the fastest bowler of the 'Golden Age of Cricket'

Jack Marsh. Courtesy of Pat Mullins and Colin Tatz

Jack Marsh (1874-1916), a Bundjalung man from Yulgilbar on the Clarence River in northern New South Wales, was an Australian first-class cricketer who represented NSW in six matches from 1900–01 to 1902–03. A controversial right-arm fast bowler of extreme pace, his career was curtailed by continual controversy surrounding the legality of his bowling action.

Under the rules of cricket, a cricket ball has to be bowled and not thrown or jerked. If the umpire is not satisfied that the ball has been bowled then he calls a 'no ball'. Being 'no-balled' means that the ball has to be bowled again.

In the case of throwing, an umpire's constant no-balling virtually means the bowler can't go on, and he retires - sometimes for life.

1900–01 Sheffield Shield season – Marsh 'no-balled' with arm splinted

Victor Trumper batting Australia, 1913. Courtesy National Museum of Australia

At a trial match in November 1900, before the start of the 1900–01 Sheffield Shield season, the umpire Curran called Marsh on the first day of the match for throwing balls. Even so, Marsh went on and had an eventful day.

Marsh first clean bowled, the great Test batsman Victor Trumper for one, then bowled another Test batsmen Frank Iredale, and finally, future Test player Bert Hopkins as a third dismissal. Between 1890-1914, Trumper played 48 test matches for Australia, scoring 3163 runs, and toured England four times between 1899 and 1909.

After bowling the Test batsman Trumper, Umpire Curran said he would 'no-ball' Marsh at play next day.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported Marsh's response to this threat from Curran

Marsh, who was no-balled ... feels so confident that his delivery is fair, that he is prepared to have his arm so bandaged as to render it impossible to bend or jerk the elbow - which is generally accepted constituting a throw. As a matter of fact, he has already demonstrated to some of the principal members of the Sydney Cricket Club that his delivery is absolutely fair. He caused a piece of wood to be tightly fixed along the arm, and bowled as fast as ever.
Sydney Morning Herald, 12 November 1900

Marsh had previously performed such an exhibition to ground members with the requisite splints and bandages acquired from the nearby St. Vincent's Hospital. The stand-off between Jack Marsh and Umpire Curran in November 1900 was controversial and widely reported in the newspapers and the sports press. Subsequently, Umpire Curran withdrew from his position and retired from umpiring the match. However, this did not stop other umpires, in subsequent matches, calling Marsh's fast bowling as no balls.

Marsh – enduring first-class records: no-balls and test batsmen dismissed

Sydney Cricket Ground, view of the hill for the 1st Test Cricket Match between England and Australia 1901-1902. Courtesy of City of Sydney SLNSW 085797

Two months later, in January 1901 at the Sydney Cricket Ground, Richard Callaway — the New South Wales umpire officiating the match — was satisfied with Marsh's bowling action but, his Victorian counterpart Bob Crockett was concerned with the twisting of the bowler's wrist. Crockett called three no-balls against Marsh in the match. Marsh took 3/39 and 3/51 respectively, dismissing four Test batsmen: Peter McAlister, Warwick Armstrong, Jack Worrall and Frank Laver.

In the return match, the controversy came to a head when the umpire Crockett called Marsh for throwing three times in his first over, a further two times in his second over, and a total of 17 times during the innings, a never repeated record in first-class cricket. This provoked rowdy responses from the spectators on the hill of the Sydney Cricket Ground, who regarded the umpire, not the bowler's arm, as being crooked, and jeered Crock! Crock! Crock!  It was observed that by this time, Marsh's confidence was low.

Marsh – records for first-class cricket averages in bowling

Cricket bat used by Victor Trumper, Australian Tour,1913. Courtesy of the National Museum of Australia

At this time, Jack Marsh held the record for first-class cricket averages in bowling with 21 wickets at a bowling average of 17.38 in three matches. This compares ahead of the records of famous Australian Test bowlers. Ken Mackay (1925-1982), a Queensland fast bowler who played 37 matches, bowled 5792 balls, had 1721 runs hit against him during  50 wickets - for an average of 34.42 (1721 divided by 50). Dennis Lillee, regarded as the most accomplished and consistent fast bowler from 1969-1988 had a first-class bowling average of 23.46.

Marsh continued to play first-class cricket as well as playing twice against the visiting English team at Bathurst in 1902 and 1905 where he took 5 for 55, bowling a mixture of pace and medium-paced off-cutters. 

The English team declared him the best bowler that they had faced on tour. No one in Sydney cricket objected to his bowling action. Marsh was seen as setting a 'fresh standard of hard-wicket excellence and created a new type, differing altogether from anything ever known before', and was described as having

gifts no other man in Australia - and probably no other bowler in the world - possesses: he curves the ball, he bowls a peculiar dropping ball, and his break back on a perfect wicket is phenomenal for a bowler of his pace.
Referee, 21 October, 1903

Marsh – 1905 exclusion from the Tour to England because of 'his color'


Jack Marsh, centre. Courtesy of Max Bonnell

In 1905 there were suggestions that Marsh should make the tour to England 'because of his clever manipulation of the ball' but he was excluded from the team. Despite the calls for Marsh to be selected, Noble, the New South Wales selector, refused to select him citing Marsh's controversial bowling action.

The noted English cricketer, L O S Poidevin, commented that this selection wouldn't happen 'probably because the absurd White Australia policy has touched or tainted the hearts of the rulers of cricket, as it has the political rulers'. Warren Bardsley (1882-1954), the great left handed Test batsman, confirmed this in his recollections when he said 'that the reason they kept him out of big cricket was his color' (sic).

1905 – Reserve system 'exemptions' for Marsh withdrawn

His cricket career having ended in 1905, Marsh returned to athletics for a while. In 1905, when he was 31 years old, he ran against Arthur Postle, then Australia's fastest man. This event was part of a prize race organised for Postle to break the 100 yard world record. In front of 12,000 spectators on a wet track in Melbourne, Marsh took an early lead with his rapid acceleration but Postle caught him on the line. Observers thought it a dead heat but Marsh was excluded from sharing the prize. Marsh did not return to athletics and instead, joined a travelling sideshow and worked as an itinerant labourer.

The privileges that Marsh had been allowed for more than 10 years, such as the freedom to travel, play sport and earn money in hand, and exemptions from the reserve system, were immediately withdrawn. He had no job, no income, no lodgings and, worst of all, no respect.

Marsh's life ended in tragedy in 1916 in Orange, New South Wales, possibly as part of a racial attack. His assailants were 'charged with feloniously killing Marsh'. The judge noted that 'his skull had probably been fractured by the toe of a boot' and yet, his two assailants were acquitted of manslaughter.

The Jack Marsh Cup

Today, the Jack Marsh Cup, an all-Indigenous cricket match, is named in honour of the Bundjalung man renowned as 'the fastest bowler of cricket's Golden Age'.

Albert Henry – one of the fastest bowlers ever seen, a 'black diamond'

Albert (Alec) Henry, c. 1902-04. Courtesy of Jack Pollard and Colin Tatz.

Another fast bowler was Albert Henry (1880-1909), who lived on the Deebing Creek Reserve near Ipswich, Queensland. Henry played seven first-class games for Queensland in 1901-02 and 1904-05. He took 26 wickets at an average of 32.04 runs each and was thought to be one of the fastest bowlers ever seen.

1902-04 Henry 'no-balled' and sent back to Deebing Creek

In April 1902 Henry was selected to play against New South Wales, including Jack Marsh, and like Jack Marsh, he was constantly no-balled for doubtful action.

In 1904, at a club match, umpire A.L. Crossart also continually no-balled him. Henry's response has gone down in cricket lore. He was reported to the Queensland Cricket Association, with the suggestion that he was no-balled because he was an Aborigine. Henry was reported as saying while shaking his fist at the umpire;

'You no-ball my good balls and the ones I did throw, you never. You know nothing about cricket.
Ashley Mallett, In Bradman's Band, p.65

Deebing Creek Reserve, 1907, from which residents required permission to leave. Courtesy of Oxley Library.

Sent back to Deebing Creek, he was later recalled in 1905 and played his last match for Queensland. Later, he was reported as standing up to the authorities. He was consequently removed to Barambah (now Cherbourg) and imprisoned for a month 'for loafing, malingering and defying authority'. From there he was isolated further to Yarrabah, to die of tuberculosis at the age of 29.

Henry achieved fantastic figures in grade cricket. Most of his victims were clean bowled. The Englishmen who faced him during the 1903–04 tour thought he was the fastest bowler they had ever seen, 'even the fastest trundler in the world'. Henry was involved in both cricket and also running.

Eddie Gilbert – 'faster than anything seen' (Bradman)

One of the greatest Aboriginal cricketers was Eddie Gilbert (1905-1978), 'a dynamic Aboriginal fast bowler who at his prime ranked second only to Bradman'. Off only four or five paces, he bowled at sizzling speed. With long arms, 'he achieved his pace with a right arm that swung in such a blur it was difficult to assess claims that he threw'.

1931 – Gilbert bowls Bradman for a duck

Eddie Gilbert bowling Donald Bradman for a duck, 1931. Courtesy of Cricket Queensland, still

In December 1931, in Brisbane, Gilbert bowled the Test cricketer Don Bradman for a duck. Some say it was the biggest mistake of his life. After a five-ball spell of which Sir Don wrote:

'he sent down in that period the fastest "bowling" I can remember ... one delivery knocked the bat out of my hand and I unhesitatingly class this short burst faster than anything seen from Larwood or anyone else.'

Gilbert was born at Durundur, south Queensland, c.1905, the son of two Kanji people from North Queensland. Gilbert's athletic skills caught the eye of local cricket authorities. Gilbert played 23 games for Queensland between 1930–31 and 1935–-36. However his career was interrupted by injury and a leprosy outbreak at Cherbourg that saw him miss the entire 1933–34 season. 

As an Aboriginal cricket player he had to get permission from the Protector every time he was chosen to play, he could not travel with his teammates and often had to seek separate accommodation.

1931–36 – Gilbert 'no-balled' with record bowling average

Fast-bowler Eddie Gilbert, 1930s. Courtesy of Pat Mullins and Colin Tatz.

In 1931 in Melbourne, the Umpire Barlow no-balled Gilbert 11 times in three overs. Yet, in the next game against South Australia, bodyline umpire George Hele didn't call him for having no balls. Injuries plagued Gilbert but in 1934–35 he took a total of 9 for 178 against NSW and 5 for 77 against Victoria.

For those matches, the Protector would not pay his expenses but 'gave his permission' for Gilbert to play. Gilbert had to battle suspicions about his bowling for the rest of his career, which saw him take 87 wickets at 28.97, including six five-wicket hauls. Despite a battle with cricket officials, Gilbert was popular with cricket fans.

1936 – Queensland Cricket Association demand of Gilbert 'the return of his cricket clothes'

On 11 November 1936, Eddie Gilbert was given his marching orders from the game. The Secretary of the Queensland Cricket Association (QCA) wrote,

The matter of Eddie Gilbert has been fully discussed by the committee and it is decided, with your concurrence, to arrange for his return to the settlement.

Eddie Gilbert signing autographs. Courtesy MCC

In addition, the Association demanded 'the return of his cricket clothes to their office'. Gilbert died at the Wolston Park Hospital near Brisbane in January 1978 and Bradman attended his funeral.

The Eddie Gilbert Cricket Program

The memory of Eddie Gilbert has been used to spearhead a campaign to develop other cricketers in Aboriginal communities throughout Queensland and the Torres Strait. The Eddie Gilbert Cricket Program was launched early in 1998 by Queensland Cricket at Woorabinda in central Queensland and included coaching and development activities for adults and children as well as Cricket 8s matches. A number of books have been published about his life.

Aboriginal women cricketers – first-class and Test players

Edna Crouch and Mabel Campbell who represented Queensland. Courtesy Indigenous Sports Queensland, still

Cousins Edna Crouch (1910- ) and Mabel Campbell (1908 - ) from Stradbroke Island were selected in a team from Queensland to play cricket against the touring English women's team in the 1934–35 season.  Campbell, who played between 1934 and 1936, was a skilful batter while Crouch, who played between 1934 and 1938, was a spin bowler.

Edna Crouch's niece, Thelma Crouch, represented an Australian Women's Youth team against England in 1940 and also played for Queensland between 1948–49 and 1953–54. In the 1990s, three Indigenous women, Debbie Walford, Denise Marsh and Pat Fraser represented Queensland.

Aboriginal test cricketer, Faith Couthard Thomas

Faith Thomas nee Couthard (b. 1933, Adnyamathanha) represented Australia in Women's Cricket in 1958, the first Aboriginal woman to do so. Thomas also had to contend with racial discrimination as she was subject to the consorting laws and the exemption system.

Faith (Couthard) Thomas was an outstanding cricketer, representing South Australia and Australia against England in 1958 and New Zealand. Faith Thomas was a foundation member of the Sports Foundation.

A ticket out?

After the 1868 touring cricket team, the Test qualifiers, Jack Marsh, Albert Henry and Eddie Gilbert were at the mercy of the Minister, the Protection Board, and Reserve supervisors. They controlled their movements and lives, restricting their capacity to play sport and denying their ability.

Eddie Gilbert bowling at the nets, possibly with selectors from Cricket Queensland, c. 1929. Courtesy of Indigenous Sports Queensland.

After Eddie Gilbert's exclusion from cricket in' 1936, it is not surprising that Aboriginal men did not play competitive first-class cricket again until Ian King played a season in 1969–70 and Michael Mainhardt two\ seasons in 1980–81 and 1982–83.

Ian King played for Queensland as a fast bowler, like Albert Henry and Eddie Gilbert. Like other Aboriginal athletes, King started playing cricket after a professional boxing career. Descended from families on Stradbroke Island, the home of three first-class women cricketers, King took 30 wickets at 28.56 in eight games for Queensland.

1988 – Aboriginal Cricket team tours England, re-enacting original 1868 tour

In 1988, King was the coach of the Aboriginal Cricket team which toured England, re-enacting the original 1868 tour by the first Australian Test team to visit England. The team included Joe Marsh, a batsman, who was Player of the Series. It was 128 years after the 1868 tour before Australia fielded its first acknowledged Aboriginal male Test cricket representative, Jason Gillespie, in 1996.

Useful links

Education Kits

The First Australian Test team to tour England, 1868:

Test team

  • Dick-a-Dick Jungunjinanuke
  • Peter Arrahmunijarrimun
  • Johnny Mullagh Unaarrimin
  • Cuzens Zellanach
  • Sundown Ballrinjarrimin
  • King Cole Brippokei
  • Tiger Bonmbarngeet
  • Red Cap Brimbunyah
  • Bullocky Bullchanach
  • Mosquito Grougarrong
  • Jim Crow Jallachmurrimin
  • Twopenny Murrumgunarriman
  • Charley Dumas Pripumuarraman

Daily Telegraph, c. 13 May 1868



  • Bonnell, M, How Many More are Coming?: The Short Life of Jack Marsh, (Petersham, N.S.W.: Walla Walla Press, 2003)
  • Don Bradman, Farewell to Cricket, London: Theodore Brun, 1950, pp 48, 96, 208, 288
  • Mike Colman and Ken Edwards, Eddie Gilbert: the true story of an Aboriginal cricketing legend, ABC Books, 2002.
  • Judy Dungey, Dismissing Eddie Gilbert, Sydney: John Fairfax, 2000.
  • Pollard, Australian Cricket, pp 433-435
  • Colin Tatz, Aborigines in Sport (PDF 3.76MB, The Australian Society For Sports History, Flinders University, 1987
  • Bernard Whimpress, Passport to Nowhere: Aborigines in Australian Cricket 1850–1939, SportsWords

Updated: 6 June 2013
Creators: Kathryn Wells

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